Live Updates: COVID-19 Cases
  • World 20,683,652
    World
    Confirmed: 20,683,652
    Active: 6,363,347
    Recovered: 13,571,088
    Death: 749,217
  • USA 5,337,426
    USA
    Confirmed: 5,337,426
    Active: 2,386,143
    Recovered: 2,782,718
    Death: 168,565
  • Brazil 3,123,109
    Brazil
    Confirmed: 3,123,109
    Active: 776,564
    Recovered: 2,243,124
    Death: 103,421
  • India 2,395,471
    India
    Confirmed: 2,395,471
    Active: 652,473
    Recovered: 1,695,860
    Death: 47,138
  • Russia 902,701
    Russia
    Confirmed: 902,701
    Active: 177,143
    Recovered: 710,298
    Death: 15,260
  • South Africa 566,109
    South Africa
    Confirmed: 566,109
    Active: 129,233
    Recovered: 426,125
    Death: 10,751
  • Mexico 492,522
    Mexico
    Confirmed: 492,522
    Active: 105,793
    Recovered: 332,800
    Death: 53,929
  • Peru 489,680
    Peru
    Confirmed: 489,680
    Active: 132,423
    Recovered: 335,756
    Death: 21,501
  • Chile 378,168
    Chile
    Confirmed: 378,168
    Active: 16,544
    Recovered: 351,419
    Death: 10,205
  • Spain 376,864
    Spain
    Confirmed: 376,864
    Active: 348,283
    Recovered: ?
    Death: 28,581
  • Iran 333,699
    Iran
    Confirmed: 333,699
    Active: 24,467
    Recovered: 290,244
    Death: 18,988
  • UK 313,798
    UK
    Confirmed: 313,798
    Active: 267,092
    Recovered: ?
    Death: 46,706
  • Saudi Arabia 293,037
    Saudi Arabia
    Confirmed: 293,037
    Active: 32,499
    Recovered: 257,269
    Death: 3,269
  • Pakistan 285,921
    Pakistan
    Confirmed: 285,921
    Active: 16,599
    Recovered: 263,193
    Death: 6,129
  • Bangladesh 266,498
    Bangladesh
    Confirmed: 266,498
    Active: 109,896
    Recovered: 153,089
    Death: 3,513
  • Italy 251,713
    Italy
    Confirmed: 251,713
    Active: 13,791
    Recovered: 202,697
    Death: 35,225
  • Turkey 244,392
    Turkey
    Confirmed: 244,392
    Active: 11,412
    Recovered: 227,089
    Death: 5,891
  • Germany 219,648
    Germany
    Confirmed: 219,648
    Active: 10,479
    Recovered: 199,900
    Death: 9,269
  • France 206,696
    France
    Confirmed: 206,696
    Active: 92,853
    Recovered: 83,472
    Death: 30,371
  • Canada 120,633
    Canada
    Confirmed: 120,633
    Active: 4,606
    Recovered: 107,023
    Death: 9,004
  • China 84,737
    China
    Confirmed: 84,737
    Active: 761
    Recovered: 79,342
    Death: 4,634
  • Netherlands 60,627
    Netherlands
    Confirmed: 60,627
    Active: 54,466
    Recovered: ?
    Death: 6,161
  • Australia 22,127
    Australia
    Confirmed: 22,127
    Active: 9,382
    Recovered: 12,393
    Death: 352
  • S. Korea 14,714
    S. Korea
    Confirmed: 14,714
    Active: 623
    Recovered: 13,786
    Death: 305
  • New Zealand 1,579
    New Zealand
    Confirmed: 1,579
    Active: 26
    Recovered: 1,531
    Death: 22

The Rosehip Neuron: The discovery of the reconstructed human brain cell

Author at TechGenyz Science
Rosehip Neuron

What is the basic difference between a human brain and an animal brain? Well, one of the most captivating questions is found to be the most difficult to answer by neuroscientists until now. An international team of 34 scientists has identified a new type of brain cell in humans not found in other well-studied species.

As said by Ed Lein, Ph.D., Investigator at the Allen Institute for Brain Science “We really don’t understand what makes the human brain special. And now we have new tools to do just that.”

The discovery of the Rosehip Neurons has been reported in the journal Nature Neuroscience on August 27. It describes the newest neuron as very bushy and has long branches called dendrites which are very compact with lots of branch points and hence the name ‘Rosehip Neuron’.

To explain what is Rosehip? Rosehips are a kind of fruit that is produced by rose plants and the new neuron is named after this red fruit. To add to the new neuron’s appearance; Rosehip Neurons are like large bulbs at the end of their axons that release neurotransmitters or chemical signals to other neurons.

Rosehip Neurons are inhibitory neurons that form synapses with pyramidal neurons, the primary excitatory neurons in the prefrontal cortex. “We all have inhibitory neurons and excitatory neurons,” says Bakken, “but this particular type of inhibitory neuron is what’s new in this study. It’s specially based on its shape and its connections and also the genes that it expresses.”

“If we want to understand how the human brain works, we need to study humans or closely related species,” – says Trygve Bakken, co-author of the paper and a neuroscientist at the Allen Institute for Brain Science.

The type of information Rosehip Neurons control, and why they appear particular to humans, is yet to be discovered. It has the possibility to sort and manipulate the circuit in a really targeted way, but how that influences behavior will be investigated in later works as said by Bakken.

The new neuron has been documented by the researchers at the Allen Institute. While examining the researchers found a new neuron and when they looked at the genes of the Rosehip Neuron, they found that the neurons acted differently.

Whereas another team advanced its investigation by learning the electrical activity and shapes of neurons in brain tissues that was kept alive in a chemical solution after it was removed.

The major reason that neuroscientists were so long not able to discover this new neuron is because the cells are very rare in the brain and also because human brain tissues are difficult to obtain for study. For now, researchers have only studied one layer of the brain thus keeping high possibilities that Rosehip Neurons could be found in other layers too.

The difference between Humans and Animals

A cortex is present in all mammals and within it a neocortex but there are about a thousand times more cells in the human cortex compared to the mouse and this makes the basic difference. In other words, it makes up a much bigger part of our brain than it does a mouse’s and this might be the reason that researchers were unable to find any hint of Rosehip Neurons in mice.

This concludes that the nonexistence of the new neuron in mice’s brain provides a clear hint that the outcome of some brain studies done on rats cannot be trusted by humans.

Career

Subscribe